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However, the compatibility of the blend which is important to the drugs that undergo signif- is observed by reactive compatibilisation []. However, complete healing of the bone blend and at higher concentration it forms miscible depends on its bearing normal loads, which is pre- blends at room temperature []. PHB by melt show miscibility in lower molecular Furthermore, sudden removal of the device can leave weight region but in higher molecular weight region the bone temporarily week and subject to refracture. PLA based fracture is observed.

More- over, low molecular weight PLA is used for tissue engineering [—]. Application of PLA. But its high cost vour and aroma barrier characteristics.

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Non- has prevented it from being used in other spheres. Injection moulded delivery system for fertilisers and pesticides. Conclusion for polystyrene. The mould is therefore recom- mended same as that for PS. Research is needed for the physical properties similar to PET and nylon. More- deliberate synthesis of PLA using proper catalyst over, PLA is aliphatic polyester and does not contain and monomer, to get tailored property in respect any aromatic ring structures.

Hence, moisture regains to degradability and strength for a particular appli- and wicking properties are superior to those of PET, cation. Moreover, there is a great potential to use and garments made from PLA or with wool or cotton PLA polymers in a number of unexplored applica- are more comfortable with silky touch.

But the cost processes. By improving the synthesis and properties using PLA possesses high transparency and is an excel- optimum catalysts system, we can further augment lent material for packaging. PLA is an inherently this polymer. This high polarity leads to a number of unique References attributes such as high critical surface energy that yields excellent printability. Apart from this, Electron J Biochem ;— Solid state polyconden- of polylactide. Polymer ;— Crystal struc- ;—7.

Macromolecules ;— Present and future of polymerization of six-membered cyclic esters. J Amer PLA polymers. Polylactones, Long-term in vivo polymerization of L-lactide in solution.

Die Makromol degradation and bone reaction to various polylactides. Chem ; 5 — Biomaterials ;— Syntheses and application of polylactides. Bioresorbility and Chemosphere ;— Med ;— Strontium-based initiator system for ring-opening poly- [7] Duncan R, Kopecek J. Soluble synthetic polymers as merization of cyclic esters. Adv Polym Sci ;— Mechanism Gona O, Mayott C, et al. Orthopad Rev ; Use of monocarboxylic iron deriva- poly lactic acid. US Patent No. L-D polylactide copolymers with controlled Macromolecules ;32 20 —7. Polymers from hydroxy acids and weight poly L-lactide initiated with tin 2-ethylhexanoate.

Die Makromol Chem ; 8 — The mechanism of the properties of polylactic acid produced by the direct ring-opening polymerization of lactide and glycolide. Eur polycondensation polymerization of lactic acid. Bull Chem Polym J ;—8. Soc Jpn ;— Polyhydroxycarb- tion of biodegradable block copolymers of e-caprolactone oxylic acid and preparation process thereof.

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Polymer- polyester and their copolymers synthesized through direct izations of L-lactide initiated with Zn II L-lactate and other condensation polymerization. Polym Degrad Stabil resorbable Zn salts. Makromol Chem Phys ; 6 : ;— Polylactones: High-molecular tion polycondensation of lactic acid catalyzed by water- weight polylactides by ring opening polymerization with stable Lewis acids. Polymer ;44 18 — Ring opening lactic acid. Maromol Symp ;— The basic late-aluminium trialkoxides Part: 2.

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End group exchange. Dihydroxy-termi- ron ;3 4 — Macromolecules ;—9. Streoselective polymerization of Polymer ;— Synthesis and properties of high molecular weight Polymer ;—5. Polymer ;—6. Polylactones, 8. Mechanism ization of D,L-lactide catalysed by new complexes of Cu, of the cationic polymerization of L,L-dilactide. J Appl Polym Sci ;—5. Ring-opening polymer- H, Stephen R, et al. Catal Commun ;—7. Yttrium and rare earth com- — Yttrium and rare earth com- initiators for living ring-opening polymerization of lactides.

Ring-opening polymerization of lactides initiated with lysts for ring-opening polymerization of e-caprolactone and yttrium tris-isopropoxyethoxide. Polym Degrad Stabil L-lactide. Polymer ;47 19 —9. Calcium methoxide initiated ring-opening of e-caprolactone and DL-lactide. Macromolecules polymerization of e-caprolactone and L-lactide. Polym Bull ;17 12 —7. Living ring-opening polymer- lactides initiated by aluminium isopropoxide, 2.

Makromol Chem its crown-6 complex. Polym Bull ;27 5 — Phys ; 6 — Polylactones: 9 lactide polymerization catalyst. Macromol Rapid Commun Polymerization mechanism of metal alkoxide-initiated ;23 15 — Living polymerization of lactide using ecules ;21 2 — Crystallization kinetics of — Polymer ;—8. Lewis acid Inter- and intramolecular ester exchange reactions in the catalyzed polymerization of L-lactide. Kinetics and mecha- ring-opening polymerization of D,L -lactide using lantha- nism of the bulk polymerization. Macromolecules ; nide alkoxide initiators.

Macromol Chem Phys — Polylactones: of L-lactide and poly ethylene glycol. Makromol Chem Polymerization of racemic D, L-lactic acid with various ;— Polymerization of ;— Bulk poly- lactide by rare earth phenyl compounds. Eup Polym J merization of lactides initiated by aluminium isopropoxide, ;—6. Thermal stability and viscoelastic properties. Polymerization of lactide Chem Phys ; 6 — Macromolecular lactone and DL-lactide by rere earth 2- methylephenyl engineering of polylactones and polylactides. Mechanism samarium. Eup Polym J ;—8. L-lactide homopoly- isopropoxide.

Bulk poly- zation by lanthanide tris 2,4,6-trimethylphenolate s. Eup merization of lactides initiated by aluminium isopropoxide, Polym J ;— Stephen R, et al. Ring- complex as catalyst for bulk ring-opening polymerization opening polymerization of lactide initiated by magnesium of L-lactides. Eur J Inorg Chem ; 15 — Polymer ;46 23 — Macromol Symp copolymerization with e-caprolactone initiated by dibutyl- ; 1 — Polylactones Lithium Part A Polym Chem ;43 13 — Stereoselec- romol Chem ; 6 —9.

Macromol Symp of stereoblock poly lactic acid. Chem ;38 S1 — Anionic iron II alkoxides as initiators for the controlled Stereoselective polymerization of rac-lactide with a bulky ring-opening polymerization of lactide. Chem ;42 23 — DJ, Williams S. Controlled polymerization of lactides at Macromolecules ;—7. Polymer- Rapid Commun ;20 12 —8. Polylactones 6. Ring-opening poly- Polym Bull ;— Synthesis of polylac- oxy-aluminum trialkoxides. Macro- ;—8. Catalytic ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide by Lactide polymerization activity of alkoxide, phenoxide, and titanium biphenoxy-alkoxide initiators.

J Polym ;— Sci Part A Polym Chem ;39 2 — Sn II octoate initiated polymerization of L- Synthesis and characterization of zirconium and hafnium lactide: a mechanistic study. Polymer ;36 6 Kinetics and mechanism and e-caprolactone polymerization. Polymerization of L,L-dilactide.

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Ghosh P. Synthesis of high-molecular- based initiator for the bulk ring-opening polymerization of weight poly L-lactide initiated with tin 2-ethylhexanoate. Eur J Inorg Chem ; 18 — Macromolecules ;—7. Ring-opening poly- ization of L,L-lactide promoted by 2-ethylhexanoic acid tin II merization of lactides using heterobimetallic yttrocene salt.

Macromol Chem Phys ; 7 —7. Polymer- octoate-versus zinc-initiated polymerization of racemic ization of L-lactide catalyzed by zinc amino acid salts. Polym Bull ;32 5—6 — Macromol Chem Phys ; 8 — Living ring-opening Soluble tin II macroinitiator adducts for the controlled polymerization of lactides catalyzed by guanidinium ace- ring-opening polymerization of lactones and cyclic carbon- tate.

Polym Bull ;26 1 —7. Bourissou D, Bertrand G. Initiation process of L-lactide polymeriza- Tin II complexes featuring a tridentate nitrogen donor for tion carried out with zirconium IV acetylacetonate. Eur J Inorg Chem ; 8 — More on the poly L-lactide prepared using Bi salts-stereochemical aspects. J Macromol Sci Pure Appl ferrous acetate as catalyst. Polym Int ;54 2 —8. Phosphines: Nucleophilic organic catalysts for merization of cyclic esters. J ;41 13 — J Jing. Pyrrolide-ligated organoyttrium complexes. The Organometallics ;—8.

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Macromol ;— Chem Phys ; 9 — Polymerization ization of L-lactide with Fe II lactate and other resorbable of lactides and lactones. Ring-opening polymerization of Fe II salts. Macromol Chem Phys ; 6 — Ring opening compounds. J Appl Polym Sci ;71 12 —8. Yttrium and rare earth compounds and zinc lactate. Polym Int ;46 3 — Polymerization of investigations of organomagnesium complexes of hybrid lactide.

Process for catalyzing ring- merization of rac-lactide. Organometallics ;—6. Single-site tadienyl rare-earth complex. CN Patent No. Lipase-catalyzed Org Lett ;7 23 —6. Lipase-catalyzed complexes as lactide polymerization catalysts. Macromol- polymerization of lactones and linear hydroxyesters.

J ecules ;—2. Biotech Lett ;20 10 —8. Rapid ring-opening polymeriza- lactide initiated by aluminum isopropoxide trimer or tion of D,L-lactide by microwaves. Macromol Rapid Com- tetramer. Copolymerization of L,L-lactide Reactions of 2,2 0 -Methylenebis 4-chloroisopropyl and e-caprolactone in the presence of initiators containing methylphenol and 2,2 0 -ethylidenebis 4,6-di-tert-butylphe- Zn and Al.

Die Makromol Chem ; 3 — The polymerization of e-caprolactone and L-lactide. Macromol- use of tetra phenylethynyl tin as an initiator for the ring- ecules ;— Organometallics [] Yasuhiro F, Itomi O. Production of polylactic acid. JP; Organo- ring sizes: syntheses, structures, and lactide polymerization metallics ;—5.

Organometallics ;—9. Organometallics thesis, structure, and catalytic activity for the ring-opening ;—8. Ring-opening polymer- Organometallics ;— Ring opening polymerization of L- Polym Int ;53 8 —6.

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Controlled ring-opening — Racemization on num isopropoxide. General aspects and kinetics. Mac- thermal degradation of poly L-lactide with calcium salt romol Chem Phys ; 5—6 — Polym Degrad Stabil ;— Biomaterials ide, 2 Mechanistic studies. Macromol Chem Phys ;— A novel rare polymers as orthopedic devices. Biomaterials ; earth coordination catalyst for polymerization of biode- — Preparation and characteriza- ;45 1 —6.

Ring-opening polymeriza- poly ethylene glycol and DL-lactide block copolymer as tion of D,L-lactide by the single component rare earth tris 4- novel drug carriers. J Contr Release ;— Polym Bull ;52 5 — Ring-opening gradable polymers. Narwood Academic Pub- phenolate single-component initiators. J Polym Sci Part A lishers; Polym Chem ;42 24 — Highly and crystallinity of poly lactic acid mechanical properties. Degradation of poly lactide- streocomplexes. Polym Prepr ; Crystallization behaviour of poly L- tron beam radiation. Surface [] Doi Y, Steinbuchel A. Polylactic acid poly L-lactide.

Wiley-Vich Inc. Poly lactic acid : plasticization and [] Brydson JA. Plastic materials. New Delhi: Butterworth properties of biodegradable multiphase systems. Polymer Heinemann; Biomaterials Biodegradable blends of poly L-lactide and starch.

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J Appl ;—8. Polym Sci ;— Starch, poly lactic acid and poly vinyl weight polylactides by ring-opening polymerization with alcohol blends. J Polym Environ ;11 1 :7— Mechanical properties of ;— J Appl Polym Sci ediphenyl diisocyanate. J Appl Polym Sci ; ;59 3 —3. Clinical implant materials. Advances in biomaterials, vol. J Polym Environ 9.

Amsterdam: Elsevier; Poly lactic acid [] Jun CL. Reactive blending of biodegradable polymers: degradation in soil or under controlled conditions. J Appl PLA and starch. Back to the search result list. This chapter focuses on well-defined metal complexes that serve as homogeneous catalysts for the production of polycarbonates from epoxides or oxetanes and carbon dioxide. Emphasis is placed on the use of salen metal complexes, mainly derived from the transition metals chromium and cobalt, in the presence of onium salts as catalysts for the coupling of carbon dioxide with these cyclic ethers.

Special considerations are given to the mechanistic pathways involved in these processes for the production of these important polymeric materials. The material properties of poly propylene carbonate PPC are discussed with respect to thermal features, viscoelastic and mechanical properties, processability, characteristics in solution, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. The modulus of elasticity around MPa and yield strength 10—20 MPa are reminiscent of low-density polyethylene.

PPC has a large elongation at break, and may be useful for the preparation of composites and blends. Biodegradation of PPC is dominated by hydrolysis, which can be accelerated by Lewis acid catalyst residues. Biocompatibility is excellent in the sense that it does not induce an inflammatory reaction in tissue. The potential applications of naturally occurring poly 3-hydroxybutyrate PHB is demonstrated by a summary of its variable mechanical properties in comparison with different commercially available polymers.

This comparison underlines the striking similarity to the most-produced materials in the world, the poly olefin s, which offers many possible applications depending on the correct polymer microstructure. However, there is a resulting competition with regard to product prices. When commercialization is addressed, low-cost raw materials as well as fast and simple polymer synthesis and purification are necessary.

This clearly demonstrates that a non-fermentative synthesis is desirable. Therefore, this manuscript reviews the latest results of catalytic PHB synthesis. Since stereocontrol is relatively difficult to achieve during ring-opening polymerization, an outlook on stereoselective monomer synthesis concludes this article. Biodegradable polymers are sustainable alternatives to standard plastics in applications where the functional property of biodegradability is an advantage. The application range is very broad: from film applications like organic waste bags, shopping bags or agricultural mulch films to knitted nets, shrink films, coated paper board and stiff foamed packaging.

This chapter deals with the biodegradability of vinyl ester-based polymers with a special emphasis on poly vinyl acetate and poly vinyl alcohol. A proper discussion of the importance of the biodegradability of a certain polymer class cannot be made without understanding the impact that polymer class has on the environment. Therefore, apart from discussing the actual biodegradation mechanisms, other issues will be addressed.

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These include, but are not limited to, how long the class of vinyl ester-based polymers has been known and produced on an industrial scale, what quantities are produced and released into the environment each year, and what applications are addressed with this polymer class. We will also look at the general physical and chemical properties of this polymer class and how these properties can influence biodegradability. Polylactones are important biodegradable and biocompatible environmentally friendly polyesters widely used for many applications and more particularly for biomedical applications.

This review covers recent advances dealing with their synthesis by ring-opening polymerization ROP. First, lactones polymerized by ROP will be reviewed with special attention paid to the effect of the ring size on polymerizability. Aliphatic polyesters synthesized by the ROP of lactones can also be obtained by polycondensation.

The advantages of ROP compared with polycondensation will be highlighted.